Mudpuppies are locally common throughout the ranges in which they reside, however there are a few populations that have been in decline throughout certain areas. They can be found in a variety of aquatic habitats as they are a completely aquatic creature that never leaves the water. Habitat destruction and pollution are among two of the reasons the number of mudpuppies has been declining in recent years. Polluted waters and the loss of ponds and lakes through development is a threat to some populations and because of their sensitive skin these creatures are especially vulnerable to toxins in the water.
Some populations are also threatened by persecution as some anglers have been known to kill them for falsely believing that they may be a threat to the populations of game fish. In Iowa, mudpuppies are in fact listed as an endangered species, while there is also concern for their well being and population in Maryland and North Carolina. Whereas other species in other parts of the world are typically placed in the category of “least concern”.